By George K. Papadopoulos, Ph.D.
No Cyprus, no certain facilities to protect our supply of oil. No oil, unemployment and hunger in Britain. It is as simple as that. UK’s PM Anthony Eden after the failed Suez operation, 1956.(1)
Even if Turkish Cypriots did not exist Turkey would have to invent them. Turkish Cypriot leader Rauf Denktash in 1956, and Turkish FM Davutoglu in his book “Strategic Depth” (2).
Hasn’t anyone told you that our objective here is partition, not re-integration? US Undersecretary of State George Ball to HMN Commander Martin Packard, head of the Tripartite Military Commission in Cyprus, on the occasion of the former’s visit to Cyprus, February 1964.(3)
F… your Parliament and your constitution….. President Lyndon Johnson to the Greek Ambassador Matsas in Washington, summer 1964, on the occasion of Greek PM George Papandreou on his refusal to accept a partition of Cyprus the previous day.(4)
Foreign Secretary [Callaghan]: Henry, if I can put the position in a nutshell, I think it comes to this: that the Turks have got a good case. In my view this can now only be resolved by the creation of a zone. A zone in which they will have autonomy within a federal republic. This could be got by negotiation but in the temper of today, no one can begin to get anything like this. And so you have a military solution for the time being, in which they will police their own boundary. You’ll have a great exchange of population with the Greeks moving out and we’ll then just let diplomacy take over when we see the opportunity once more, to see if we can get a peaceful solution in the island. Now as regards Greece and Turkey, it is Greece who will need massaging because the Turks are too jingoistic, indeed too close to Hitler for my liking [bold by the author]. All right?
Dr Kissinger: I completely agree with you, Jim. And the tragedy is that it could have worked out that way through diplomacy…
Conversation at 1.45 pm, London time, 14th August 1974, while the Turkish Armed Forces had initiated the Attila II operation to conquer 38 % of Cyprus, killing about 5,000 (over 1,500 persons are still unaccounted for), raping young and old men and women by the hundreds, and evicting over 200,000 Cypriots (ca. 33 % of the island’s population) from their homes.(5)
The US did some shameful things in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 1960s and the 1970s, and that’s all I am going to say about it. US Undersecretary of State Richard Holbrook on Greek State TV, fall 1995. Mr. Holbrook was to play on this theme repeatedly on several occasions while testifying before the US Congress on the matter of Cyprus.
Hitler is a most extraordinary creature… a man who would rather be better than his word…[Hitler is ] having another side, besides the gangster, which it is worth trying to cultivate. British PM Neville Chamberlain to the Labour Party leadership after the PM’s first meeting with Hitler in Berchtesgaden, on September 15th, 1938, before the fateful Munich Conference where Czechoslovakia’s guarantors France and the UK handed her over to Hitler (6).
As Richard Holbrook so squarely stated, the conduct of the US, and the UK by extension, has been shameful in the issue of Cyprus (7), because both powers have used their considerable weight in acceding to all of Turkey’s wishes on the subject (Hitler-like on the matter of Cyprus, as UK’s FM confessed to Henry Kissinger), forgetting what Turkey was and is and ignoring simple rules of democracy, to say nothing of the UN Charter and the Geneva Convention on Human Rights (8-14). Moreover, the UK obstinately refused the simple principle of self-determination, applied to so many of the colonies after WWII, holding Cyprus tightly as Anthony Eden described so succinctly above (5, 11, 15-17). It seems that Cyprus must have figured in the minds of policy planners in the West as a place worth its weight in gold and diamonds, otherwise there would not have been such an effort by the US and the UK to deny her people the obvious, and go so far out of the way to satisfy the most outrageous of Turkey’s wishes and support (by never expressing any disapproval even in the light of damning evidence) the most inhuman of her actions in Cyprus (e.g. treatment of captured civilians and prisoners of war, see below) over so many decades (5, 17, 18). Richard Holbrook is the only western official to have gone so far and admit past wrongdoings (19); President Clinton on visiting Athens in December 1999 apologised for the US support to the seven year dictatorship (1967-1974), but admitted no responsibility for US encouragement to this odd band of obvious traitors to seize power to begin with, far less for the junta’s coup in Cyprus in 1974, or the ensuing invasion of the island by Turkey, all under US supervision, support and cover (4, 7, 20-23). Because of her previous involvement in Cyprus as a colonial power, the UK while conniving with Turkey to eliminate the Republic of Cyprus as an independent state, had to hide all of its desires behind US planning and actions. This understanding went back to Britain unilaterally and in spite of contrary and explicit provisions, violated the Treaty of Lausanne by making Turkey a party to discussions with Greece on the future of Cyprus (10, 24). Suffice it to remind the readers that Turkish Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit arrived in London three days before ordering the invasion of Cyprus, and thus violating international law, with an entourage of some 30 or so of Turkey’s highest officials from her Foreign and Defence Ministries, not for a picnic but obviously to discuss in detail the planning and the execution of the upcoming invasion, as well as the handling of the new situation that would arise thus (24-28).
Indeed, the past 43 years have demonstrated to the world what Turkey means in Cyprus, as judged by her actions in the occupied part, where she stations over 40,000 soldiers:
- There are anywhere from 200,000 to 300,000 illegal settlers from Turkey with whom the Turkish Cypriots (either indigenous to the occupied part or forcibly brought there from all over the island where they resided until 1974) wish to have no relations. There are very few marriages between Turkish Cypriots and illegal settlers, as any visitor to the occupied areas will immediately recognize. The cultural differences between the two groups are too great to miss.
- The population of the Turkish Cypriots (T/C), presumably “liberated” from the yoke of the “oppressive” Greeks by the 1974 invasion, has been dwindling from over 120,000 then, to hardly 90,000 now, as many emigrate to various places unable to suffer this yoke, which is for real. T/Cs constitute only 10-12 % of the legal residents of the Republic of Cyprus, while they were about 18 % right before the invasion. Essentially, little by little, conditions in the occupied part of Cyprus resemble what is happening in Turkey: an authoritarian regime is in place with loss of civil liberties to an extent unseen before. Any time the T/Cs have demonstrated demanding a withdrawal of the Turkish occupation troops, Erdogan’s response has been harsh and rude: “I am paying for your up-keep so stay quiet”.
- Turkey has occupied the richest part of Cyprus (responsible for almost 70% of the country’s GDP in 1973), yet practically all previous infrastructure has been allowed to go to ruins. Instead casinos have sprung all over the place (they are forbidden in Erdogan’s near islamic Turkey) and attempts are made for massive housing developments on stolen land. The overall cost of the invasion and occupation may amount to between 80 and 90 billion $ (60-70 billion for the value of property not enjoined and 18 billion for loss of revenue over these 43 years) (29). It is astounding that under the last two presidents the Republic of Cyprus has hardly raised this very crucial issue. As Turkey obstinately refuses to budge on the issue of complete troop withdrawal from Cyprus, it is never too late to bring her face-to-face with her responsibilities. Notwithstanding the fact that Turkey has been convicted numerable times by the European Court of Human Rights to pay millions of euros in reparations to Cypriot refugees for loss of the right to enjoy their property in the areas occupied by the Turkish army and yet she has refused for over a decade to execute such judgements and pay the fines to the interested parties (30). Her refusal is on the agenda of the Council of Ministers of the Council of Europe! The argument that the her army of occupation is keeping the peace, has literally fallen apart since 2003, when Cyprus was to join the EU and communications were allowed between the part of Cyprus occupied by Turkey and the majority under control of the government of the Republic of Cyprus, no events of enmity or hate were noted, by groups that supposedly were at the throats of each other. With such a record of disregarding any obligations she has undertaken that she later deems not to be in her interests, one can imagine which terms of any agreement over Cyprus she will follow; obviously only those in her interests and will find ways to disregard all others.
- As if this was not enough, Turkey practised systematic looting and exploitation of Cyprus’s very rich cultural heritage in the occupied areas, from Neolithic up to Byzantine times, and essentially since 1200 BC of distinctly Greek character. The Kanakaria, Antifonitis, and St. Thimonianos frescoes, unique pieces of religious devotion and adoration, fell prey to the lust for gold by the Turkish occupation authorities31-37. After looting churches and monasteries of their priceless religious artefacts, Turkey has found it profitable to either obliterate such places, or turn them into pubs, animal barns and anything else, lest anyone think that they resemble a place of religious devotion. ISIS learned this lesson well from Turkey’s over-40 year-long practices in Cyprus, Turkey’s hypocrisy in demanding a return of all cultural treasures stolen from her land notwithstanding!
- Yet, nothing compares to the physical and psychological torture suffered by the people held captive from the time of the invasion onwards, and the horrible treatment so many of them received in the hands of the Turkish Army. The Turkish invasion cost the Cypriots human losses in the thousands: over 5,000 (nearly 1 % of the population dead), over 1,600 missing (several of them last seen alive in the hands of the Turkish army), nearly 1,000 men and women, young and old raped (abortions became legal at the time in Cyprus for victims of such crimes) and over 200,000 (34 % of the population) became refugees in their own land. And all this in a little over three weeks! The fact-finding commission of the Council of Europe documented in 1977 the horrors committed by the Turkish Army of invasion/occupation, yet insidious British diplomacy succeeded in shelving the report “in the hopes of finding a solution”, an excuse used all too often by any country who in the hopes of getting a fat contract from Turkey became her defence lawyer for such actions (18). The extent of the horrors suffered by Cypriot captives of the Turkish invasion force in 1974 might have been a guessing game had it not been for last year’s attempted (?) coup in Turkey that resulted in over 100,000 persons losing their jobs, being jailed and facing trial for treason. Their treatment and reports of torture allow us to imagine the horrors that Cypriot captives went through after the invasion of Cyprus by the Turkish Armed Forces in 1974. The accounts of captives such as Charita Mandoles who saw her husband, her father, two brothers in law, an uncle and a cousin murdered in front of her own eyes, one day after the invasion, are telling enough (38). Of course such captives told their stories soon enough, but the world did not care to listen (39). Colonel Salih Guleryuz of the invasion force admitted in his diary to murder by Turkish soldiers of civilians from the village of Sysklipou in Kyrenia District, and of using a captive 12-year old girl as a military company’s whore! All this evidence is in the suit of the government of the Republic of Cyprus against Turkey, before the European Court of Human Rights, pending from June 2012 (40-41)…
- All along Turkey has been insisting that she is merely keeping the peace in Cyprus and it is up to the T/C and the G/C to find a solution (to her liking, that is), while she is in charge of everything in the occupied part of Cyprus with the telling effects on the indigenous T/Cs as outlined above. Thus all attempts at a resolution of the Cyprus problem just have a problem of packaging. The Anan plan, as admitted by State Department official Daniel Fried was designed so that Turkey could have Cyprus! (we gave them 90 billion dollars in aid and Cyprus in the form of the Anan plan [so that they would agree to passage of US troops through Turkey to invade Iraq in 2003; Turkey did not agree to this, but the US kept her side of the bargain!!]). Other officials went even further claiming that this was the means to render Turkey blameless about the sad state of affairs in Cyprus. Now Turkey is threatening to block development of oil and natural gas exploration in the EEZ of the Republic of Cyprus, perhaps by initiating drilling on her own! Such a threat is tantamount to piracy in the high seas, nothing new to Turkey choosing to live on the fringes or outside international law. Her threats are coming via the representative of the UN Secretary General on the matter of Cyprus, Norwegian politician and diplomat Mr. Espen Barth Eide (!) who often enough is her mouthpiece (he recently pretended ignorance over UN resolutions demanding total withdrawal of Turkish occupation troops from Cyprus!). There is one question for Mr. Eide however: how would he have liked it if there were to be a different and much shorter ending to WWII, with a German-British rapprochement in July 1940 (as Hitler had proposed and Churchill refused) (42), and Norway, along with most of then Nazi-occupied Europe, was to end-up in the German sphere of influence and occupation with someone like Norwegian fascist Vidkun Quisling as her head?
As for the current US administration, is it not time to stop adding to the failed policy of over 70 years of acceding to every unthinkable demand of Turkey that each time would turn into near slaves some of her neighbors? The provisions in the rejected Anan plan were essentially for an apartheid regime. The plan contained many provisions for Turkey to rule Cyprus (through illegal settlers, the puppet T/C leadership, etc), the likes of which have been judged illegal by US Courts in trying to redress discrimination against minorities (the T/Cs as a minority from 1960-63 enjoyed veto rights over legislation and cabinet actions and representation in government jobs at almost double their percent, provisions seen nowhere in the world) (43-45). Right now Turkey is on top of every list regarding all sorts of human rights violations, from most jailed journalists, to most jailed academics for political crimes pending trial etc. Can such a country offer any of her neighbors any stability or peace, or security? Unless perhaps one wishes to repeat the try of Neville Chamberlain to cultivate the other side of Hitler, besides the gangster one, as the quote on top states, (46). Six months later, with the invasion and occupation of all of Czechoslovakia, the PM was to declare in a public speech in Birmingham that he was fooled and deceived! While it would be as late as 1990 that President Mitteran and PM Thatcher were to publicly apologise on behalf of their governments to the people of Czechoslovakia for the Munich agreement.
Oh, and if anyone wishes to see how an Anan plan would fit into their country, e.g. Turkey, they can read this:
It is time to wake up from misconceptions regarding Turkey that have gone for over 70 years. It will not be an easy exercise, but it is the only way for Turkey and her people to come to terms with their own past. Turkey has never been called into account for any gross violations of human rights that she has committed, either within or outside her borders (Genocides, pogroms, ethnic cleansing and the like detailed in the references below) (8-14, 47), so she has every intensive to continue and insist on business as usual. And there could be a temptation by the US and UK (a non-EU member and another non-member to be), just as in 2003, besides the tens of billions in aid, to give her Cyprus in the form of a new plan (Eide plan, perhaps?), in spite of the expressed wishes of the legal citizens of Cyprus. Is this what western civilization is all about? After the Munich agreement of 1938, T.S. Elliot was to state that civilization suffered6. Are we in for a repeat? With Erdogan’s threats that no European will walk safely in the streets if Europe does not give Turkish citizens unconditional visas, at the time that Turkey herself does not meet conditions set by the EU for every third country asking for the same?
1. Jacob Abadi, Britain‘s withdrawal from the Middle East 1947-1971. The Economic and Strategic Imperatives, The Kingston Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1982. Also quoted in Fanoulla Argyrou – Andreas Papaconstantinou H Kypros sto sfyri (Cyprus auctioned, in Greek), London, 1991. p. 4.
2.Ahmet Davutoglou, Stratejik Derinlik: Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Konumu (İstanbul: Küre, 2005) (Strategic Depth: the international position of Turkey), also available in Greek, translated by N. Raptopoulos, edited by N. Sarris. Poiotita publications, 2010. There are several articles in the scholarly literature and everyday press analyzing this position that the reader may refer to.
3.Martin Packard, Getting it wrong: excerpts from a Cyprus diary. Author House, London, 2008.
4.Philip Deane, I should have died. Atheneum, 1977, p.113. It is most unfortunate that neither the Greek PM nor the Greek Ambassador had the courage to remind LBJ (or any future US president for that matter) of the enormous sacrifices of Greece in WW II (second only to those of the Soviet Union in terms of percent of the population dead and percent of GDP and capital goods lost).
5.PREM 16/20, National Archives of the UK. As quoted by William Mallinson, Britain in Cyprus, (I.B. Tauris, London, 2011), pages 67-70; also found in http://agora-dialogue.com/2017/01/02/the-fourth-geneva-convention-of-1949-and-its-relevance-to-the-conference-on-cyprus-in-geneva-on-12-january-2017/
6.Telford Taylor, Munich: the price of peace. Doubleday & Co., 1979, New York, p. 752.
7.Office of the Historian, US Department of State. US Documents o Foreign policy, Vol. 30, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, 1973-1976. http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76v30. It is unfortunate that this important volume has not been the subject of any thorough scholarly or journalistic analysis. First, there is near total absence of any communications of the US Department of State with the US Embassy in Ankara for the period, incredible to even think of. Apparently nearly all relevant documents must be top secret, never (?) to be declassified. Second, all press releases and statements on the matter of Cyprus by Secretary Kissinger are in near total contradiction of what he is listed as saying in the various meetings. His professed ignorance of events and excuse of being out of town when events took place, contrasts to his extensive micromanagement by physical presence, telephone or telegram, documented here. There is reference to a telegram no. 156801 to Ankara on July 19 (US National Archives RG59, Central Policy Files, 1974) where, according to Amb. MaCloskey, “the emphasis is on convincing the Turks that military action won’t settle the problem on Cyprus, or the area as a whole, and would only invite Greek counter activities” p. 326. In less than a month the Secretary would essentially approve the violent military occupation of 37 % of Cyprus “in Hitler-like” manner, words of his interlocutor UK FM Callahan, to which he did not object (see 5. above). Third, it is worth realizing that even after 36 hours of fighting the totally overpowering Turkish army was in no position to establish a single bridgehead at the site of invasion, and at the admission of CIA Director Richard Colby in a meeting in Kissinger’s presence “we put Ecevit [Turley’s PM] in an untenable position. We have to give him something to take back to his generals”. The establishment of a large bridgehead in 24 hours before any UN Security Council Resolution would take effect was apparently the condition that was hardly met. Yet the secretary in his telephone call to PM Ecevit after this meeting, hints at possible ways to violate the cease-fire and proceed (p. 363-365, of these documents). The PM did just that! There are a lot more conclusions to be drawn from this source, but this is not the place to do so.
8. Frank G.Weber, The evasive neutral: Germany, Britain, and the Quest for a Turkish Alliance in the Second World War, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Mo., 1979.
9. Dilek Guven, “Nationalism, social changes and minorities: the events against Turkey’s non_Moslems, 6/7 September, 1955”. Estia Bookshop, Athens, 2006. (in Greek). —Nationalismus Und Minderheiten: Die Ausschreitungen Gegen Die Christen Und Juden Der Türkei Vom September 1955 (Südosteuropäische Arbeiten). De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2012. Also in Turkish.
10. Spyros Vryonis, Jr. The mechanism of catastrophe: The Turkish Pogrom of September 6 – 7, 1955, and the Destruction of the Greek Community of Istanbul. Greekworks.com Inc, 2005. Suffice it to say that the Greek government of 1955 in the name of good Greek-Turkish relations and upon the intervention of US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles refrained from issuing a Black Book documenting the ethnic cleansing committed (as it later turned out) under Prime Minister Menderes’s personal supervision (see also 9. above)! The Black Book was published in early 1964 by the new Greek Government of George Papandreou, yet this did not prevent the Inonu government of Turkey to begin deportations of Greek citizens and other persons of Greek descent that were legal permanent residents of Turkey under flimsy pretexts, stripping them of all their possessions! The relevant two secret decrees of the Turkish government were lifted 24 years later, after the meeting of prime ministers Andreas Papandreou and Turgut Ozal in Davos, Switzerland. The expelled residents of Istanbul and their descendants have since been trying to reclaim their properties, with the Turkish courts taking a long time to decide and raising all sorts of irrelevant administrative issues in order to delay judgment.
11. Perry Anderson,The Divisions of Cyprus.London Review of Books, 24 April 2008. https://www.lrb.co.uk/v30/n08/perry-anderson/the-divisions-of-cyprus
12. Fuat Dundar, Modern Turkiye’nin sifresi, (The code of modern Turkey). GreekWorks, Athens (in Greek), 2014. See by the same author, Crime of Numbers: The Role of Statistics in the Armenian Question (1878-1918), Routledge, 2010.
13. The Resolution.of the International Association of Genocide Scholars recognizing the Greek and Assyrian Genocides besides the Armenian Genocide: http://www.genocidescholars.org/sites/default/files/document%09%5Bcurrent-page%3A1%5D/documents/IAGS-Resolution-Assyrian%20and%20Greek%20Genocide.pdf. Interested readers may also read the eminently readable and relevant true story by Thea Halo, Not even my name, Picador, 2001.
14. Taner Akçam, A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. Picador, 1997, and by the same author The Young Turks’ Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire. Princenton University Press, 2012, reprint 2013.
15. Robert Holland, Britain and the Revolt in Cyprus, 1954-1959. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999.
16. William Mallinson, Cyprus: a modern history. I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd; Revised edition edition, London, 2008.
17. William Mallinson,Partition Through Foreign Aggression: The Case of Turkey in Cyprus. Minnesota Mediterranean and East European Monographs no. 20. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Modern Greek Studies, 2010.
18. Report by the Council of Europe Commission on human rights violations by Turkey in Cyprus. Parts of the report published in the Sunday Times are found here http://www.cyprus-conflict.org/materials/sundaytimes.html .
19. This statement by Holbrook was to lead to an act of diplomatic rudeness by T/C leader Rauf Denktash towards Holbrook in March 1996. While Holbrook was trying to find what happened to six American citizens of Cypriot descent who were missing since the Turkish invasion of 1974, Denktash cancelled a scheduled meeting with him, claiming that he had suffered a heart attack and had to travel by plane to Turkey to be treated; at the same time he accused the medical services in the part of Cyprus occupied by Turkey as being wholly incompetent to face such eventualities!
20. Alexis Papachelas, O viasmos tis ellinikis dimokratias (The rape of Greek democracy, in Greek), 1998.
21. Laurence Stern, The wrong horse. The Politics of Intervention and the Failure of American Diplomacy, Times Books, 1977.
22. Robert Keeley, The Colonels’ Coup and the American Embassy: A Diplomat’s View of the Breakdown of Democracy in Cold War Greece. PennState Press, 2010.
23. Christopher Hitchens, Hostage to History: Cyprus from the Ottomans to Kissinger. Verso, London, 1997.
24. Fanoulla Argyrou, Conspiracy or Blunder? The Evolution of a Bizonal Bicommunal Federation in Cyprus, Nicosia, 2000.
25. Brendan O’Malleyand Ian Craig.The Cyprus Conspiracy: America, Espionage and the Turkish Invasion. I.B. Tauris, London, 2001.
26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4632080.stm. This programme uncovers the role of British secret services in helping the terrorist organization of TMT set up in 1957 by officers of the Turkish Army Special Operations group and helped along well into the 1960’s, after TMT’s attempt for mutiny and insurrection against the state of the Republic of Cyprus before Christmas of 1963. For more on the tactics of TMT see 3. above.
27. Fanoula Argyrou, H dizoniki ektelesi tis Kypriakis Dimokratias (The bizonal execution of the Republic of Cyprus, in Greek) 1956-2011, Adrasteia, 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus.
28. Georgios Kazamias, Brettanikes prosdokies (?) gia tin Kypro, 20 Iouliou 1974 (British expectations (?) for Cyprus, on July 20th, 1974 , in Greek), in Fileleftheri Emphasi, no. 44, July-September, 2010, a trimonthly review of the Institute of Democracy Constantine Karamanlis, pp. 116-126. This remarkable article contains a translation into Greek, as well as a photocopy of the original top-secret telegram (O.LH13267 JG2 TOR 0749 22.7.74) from the Australian High Commission in London, to Canberra with copies to the Australian Embassies in London and Ankara. It details a private comment by a senior official from the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office stating that “Britain secretly would not object to Turkish military forces occupying 1/3 of the island before agreeing to a cease-fire. Such a position would need to be reached by July 21st if peace prospects were not to e endangered further”! This essentially backs up the claim by CIA’s director Colby to Kissinger, cited in 7. above.
29. Aris Petasis. Why do gullible Greeks believe fake Turkish promises? The fake promises of Erdogan, at http://mignatiou.com/2017/06/why-do-gullible-greeks-believe-fake-turkish-promises-the-empty-promises-of-erdogan/#more-226149
30. Elena Katseli. The European Court of Human Rights has Spoken.. again. Does Turkey listen? https://strasbourgobservers.com/2014/07/07/the-european-court-of-human-rights-has-spoken-again-does-turkey-listen/
31. The decision by the Circuit Federal Court of Indiana on the return of the Kanakaria mosaics to their rightful owner, The Church of Cyprus, is found here http://www.uniset.ca/microstates/717FSupp1374.htm
32. A report on the stolen frescoes St Eythymianos of Lysi and their return to Cyrpus is found here https://iconreader.wordpress.com/2012/03/30/800-year-old-frescoes-returned-to-cyprus/. One can imagine how much Turkey and her illegal dealers have collected from selling such priceless items in the black market.
33. Michael Jansen, War and Cultural Heritage: Cyprus after the 1974 Turkish Invasion. Minnesota Mediterranean and East European Monographs, no. 14. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Modern Greek Studies, 2005.
34. Anna Marangou, script on films:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RchNmZRz8go , and, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xp7FHYPUKVg. Lobby for Cyprus, Turkey’s assault on the Hellenic heritage of Cyprus.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7TAc8kY4BI&list=PL904B03DBA2EF11E0&index=10 All three films provide ample detail on the destruction of cultural heritage in the occupied part of Cyprus.
36. The full report of a pertinent 2009 hearing of the US Congress on the destruction of cultural heritage in occupied Cyprus, is found here https://www.loc.gov/law/help/cultural-property-destruction/cyprus.php
38. Euridiki Perikleous-Papadopoulou, Os alithos: I alithini istoria tis Charita Mandoles (As truly: the true story of Charita Mandoles), Nefeli publications, Athens, 2015, in Greek.
39. BARBARIANS, 8th August, 1974, The Sun (London, UK).
40. Erol Moutemjimler, Satilik Ada Kibris: Kibris Baris Harekatinin Bilinmeyen Yonleri (Cyprus: an island for sale, the unknown facets of the peace operation in Cyprus, in Turkish), 7th edition, Istanbul, 2007. 41.
41. Turkish tactics regarding missing Cypriots: Memorandum of the Republic of Cyprus to the Council of Minister, Council of Europe (in Greek), in the newspaper Phileleftheros, Nicosia, Cyprus, May 27, 2012. 42.
42. Ian Kershaw, Fateful Choices: Ten Decisions that Changed the World, 1940-1941. Penguin, 2008.
43. Gene Rossides, Kissinger and Cyprus: a study in lawlessness. American Hellenic Institute Foundation, 2014.
44. Thomas D. Boyatt, “Why Kissinger was Wrong”. In The US and Cyprus: Double Standards and the Rule of Law, ed. Eugene T. Rossides and Van Coufoudakis, 323-325. Washington, D.C.: The American Hellenic Institute Foundation, 2002.
45. Van Coufoudakis, Cyprus—A Contemporary Problem in Historical Perspective.Minneapolis: Minnesota Mediterranean and East European Monographs-University of Minnesota, 2007.
46. George K. Papadopoulos, The Munich agreement of 1938 (unfair to the Czechs and dishonorable for the UK), East Timor and Cyprus. Found at http://mignatiou.com/2013/12/the-munich-agreement-of-1938-unfair-to-the-czechs-and-dishonorable-for-the-uk-east-timor-and-cyprus/
47. Faik Okte and Geoffrey Cox. The tragedy of the Turkish capital tax, London, 1987, (originally issued in Turkish in 1951). This is a unique book by the Turkish head tax collector in Istanbul during the time of the application of the capital tax (1942) and details how thousands of non-Moslem inhabitants of the city were defrauded of their possessions and sent to work battalions (if they could not pay the outrageously excessive tax), where many perished. He called for outright reparations to the families and relatives of all concerned, after PM Menderes failed to go through with his pre-election promise (1950) on the matter.
I dedicate this article to the memory of three Greek Americans whom I had the privilege of knowing and who greatly helped the people of Cyprus in their hour of need: Mrs. Virginia Langus, head of the Philoptochos Society of the Greek Orthodox Holy Trinity Community of Portland, Oregon that adopted over 90 Cypriot refugee children (under the auspices of the Holy Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America), the most of any other Orthodox community in the US; Drs. Thomas Chase and Paul Angelides of Columbus, Ohio, who were both involved in helping Greece and Cyprus after the invasion of Cyprus on July 20, 1974: the former as chairman of the Cyprus and Hellenic Committee of AHEPA for several years, and the latter working with the newly-formed American Hellenic Institute under Eugene Rossides, pointing out the gross violations of American laws by Turkey in using American military aid to invade helpless Cyprus. The Carter administration managed to lift the US Congress-imposed arms embargo to Turkey in 1978 on the promise that a solution to the Cyprus problem would be “imminent” with the lifting of the embargo. So imminent it was, that 39 years later it is still “imminent”!